Surya Siddhant, A Gem on Vedic Astronomy written million years ago.

July 2, 2020

We have often heard about Ramayana, Ravana and his heinous acts but have we ever heard about Ravans Father-in-law King Maya and his achievements? King Maya has written the first and most scientific book called “Surya Siddhant”, Its King Maya to whom the Sun god
(Surya Devta) has revealed the specific and particular knowledge about the Sun and cosmos to make people of THE earth aware about the importance of the sun and that’s how Hindus started worshipping the Sun. There are many revelations in this book which still stand accurate in the modern world.

For instance, As described in this book, ( the four yugas make up a cycle called divya-yuga, which lasts 4,320,000 years. One thousand of these
yugas equal one day of Brahma, which is called a kalpa. Brahma’s lifespan is 100 years of his time. In each yuga there is a specific process of self-realization (yuga dharma). )

The text describes some of its formulae with the use of very large numbers for divya yuga, stating that at the end of this yuga earth and all astronomical bodies return to the same starting point and the cycle of existence repeats again. These very large numbers based on
divya-yuga, when divided and converted into decimal numbers for each planet give reasonably accurate sidereal periods.
For example, the Surya Siddhanta states that the sidereal period

  • For moon is 27.322 which compares to 27.32166 in modern calculations.
  • For Mercury it states the period to be 87.97 (modern W: 87.969),
  • Venus 224.7 (W: 224.701), Mars as 687 (W: 686.98)
  • Jupiter as 4,332.3 (W: 4,332.587) and
  • Saturn to be 10,765.77 days (W: 10,759.202).

The Surya Siddhanta also estimates the diameters of the planets.

  • The estimate for the diameter of Mercury is 3,008 miles, an error of less than 1% from the currently accepted diameter of 3,032 miles.
  • It also estimates the diameter of Saturn as 73,882 miles, which again has an error of less than 1% from the currently accepted diameter of 74,580.
  • Its estimate for the diameter of Mars is 3,772 miles, which has an error within 11% of the currently accepted diameter of 4,218 miles.
  • ItS also estimated THAT the diameter of Venus as 4,011 miles and Jupiter as 41,624 miles, which are roughly half the currently accepted values, 7,523 miles and 88,748 miles, respectively.

The Surya Siddhant not only shows Indians vast ancient knowledge about cosmos in the early era but also their advanceD and forward approach towards science. This book explains the root of trigonometry as well as essential mathematical inventions such as the decimal system and standard notation. Most importantly Surya Siddhant reveals the knowledge of
gravity almost million years before it was claimed by Sir Isaac Newton and his theory in 1687.
The Surya Siddhant is written in classical Indian poetry tradition, where ideas, even the complicated ones, are expressed lyrically in the form of shlokas. As per Hindu lore it is believed that Surya Siddhant was first written almost 2 million yearS ago, whereas according to Vedic tradition the latest edition was written around 2500 years ago. If we have to
believe modern historians according to them it's written somewhere around 5-6 th century AD.
Some even claim that this book was collectively written by Indian and Greek historians together during Hellenistic age. They even claim in most of the part that Hipparchus was the first mathematician who actually invented the Trigonometry Table. He has created a list of
all the values as well. As you all know that trigonometry table is used in navigation and astrological calculation. Hipparchus used this table to tabulate the orbits of sun n moon.

Other calculations made in the Surya Siddhant that include:

  • The average length of the tropical year was 365.2421756 days, which is only 1.4 seconds shorter than the modern value of 365.2421904 days!
  • The average length of the sidereal year, the actual length of the Earth’s revolution around the Sun, was 365.2563627 days, which is virtually the same as the modern value of 365.25636305 days.
  • Not content to limit measurements to Earth, the Surya Siddhant also states the motion, and diameters of the planets! For instance, the estimate for the diameter of Mercury is 3,008 miles, an error of less than 1% from the currently accepted diameter of 3,032 miles. It also estimates the diameter of Saturn as 73,882 miles, which again has an error of less than 1% from the currently accepted diameter of 74,580.
  • Aside from inventing the decimal system, zero and standard notation (giving the ancient Indians the ability to calculate trillions) the Surya Siddhanta also contains the roots of Trigonometry.
  • It uses sine (jya), cosine (kojya or “perpendicular sine”) and inverse sine (otkram jya) for the first time!
  • “Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth, therefore the earth, the planets, constellations, the moon and the sun are held in orbit due to this attraction”. (this was also discussed in Prashnopanishad)
  • The Surya Siddhanta also goes into detailed discussion about time cycles and that time flows differently in different circumstances, the roots of relativity. Here we have a perfect example of Indian philosophy’s belief that science and religion are not mutually exclusive.


Apart from who claims what, If we read all the books from the above claimed historians specially Hipparchus and go through the details, evidently everything that is mentioned or claimed to be invented in the book are found to be more elaborate, detailed and most
accurate in Surya Siddhant.
Let’s talk about Trigonometry for instance if we look at the Hipparchus book and then read the Surya Siddhant you will find the trigonometry is explained in more detail in Surya Siddhant than Hipparchus’s book.
The book even gets credit for its knowledge by an Arabic writer called Abbasid Khalifa al-Mansur, the founder of the Abbasid Caliphate who translated the Sanskrit version of Surya Siddhant into Arabic.

So if modern researchers are acknowledged as scientists and get credit on the basis of partly written pieces of research, which was written on a much later date when compared to Surya Siddhant.
I fail to understand why this ancient book which contains all this information, and has explained everything in much more detail and accuracy has not been given due credit. This book has been
written more than million years ago before the current researchers made their claims.
Indian history has also been very much distorted, and due credit has never been given to our scriptures by these modern scientists.

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